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ix                                        BEHEMOTH                                    229
stumpy appendage). e Behold, he drinketh tip a river, and hastetfa
not'" is surely much more suggestive of the copious draughts of
att Elephant than the possibly equally copious but not so visible
libations" of a Hippopotamus.
The most ancient of the true Elephants (genus Elephas) is
JS. meridioncdis. It is of the African type, i.e. the plates of the
molar teeth are not abundant, and are not so many as in the
existing J. afr-ieanus. It seems to have been one of the largest of
Elephants, standing 4 metres high. Its remains are abundant in
Europe^ and are known also from England, lake this species
JE. anJiqu'us is also of the African type. It was contemporary
with man. Certain dwarf or " pony" races found in caves in
Malta, and called J$iepha& <melitensis or JS. falconeri, are believed
to belong to this species. Mr. ILeith Adams^ who described these l
remains, placed them in. two dwarf species called by the names
used above, and found associated with them a larger form, which
he referred to JK. antiquus. The existence of these animals in
Malta seems to argue at least its former larger dimensions, and
the presence of more abundant fresh water. The remarkable
swimming capabilities of "the Elephant do not necessarily imply
either a former absence of land connexion or, on the other hand,
its existence. USTor as a third possibility can it be suggested that
the dwarf size argues an island of limited dimensions, when we
bear in mind the huge tortoises of the Galapagos and some other
islands. It is important to notice that Elephants of the African
type (Zfoxodan) were not formerly absent from India. J&. pl&nifrons
was one of these.
The genus Siegodon is so called from the fact that the molar
teeth, seen in longitudinal section* present a series of roof-shaped
folds, the interstices between which are not, or are, imperfectly
filled up with the cement which in JSlephas reduces the surface of
the teeth to a level plane. This genus is exclusively Asiatic, and
is Miocene to Pleistocene in time range. The number of ridges
on the molars is small, not more than two. The incisors (tusks)
have no enamel; the skeleton generally is like that of J3lepha,$9
between which and Mastodon the present genus is intermediate.
Among the four ox five species is S. ganesa (called after the Indian
Elephant-headed divinity), with tusks 10 feet long, to be seen at
the British Museum of Natural History.
1 Trans. Zool. So&> iat. 1874, p, 1.